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History of Christian Doctrines

History of Christian Doctrines

By: Louis Berkhof

£16.99
Product Details
Publisher Banner Of Truth Trust
Year
ISBN 9780851500515

The study of doctrinal truth, apart from its historical background, leads to a truncated theology. There has been too much of this in the past, and there is a great deal of it even in the present day. The result has been the lack of a sound understanding and a proper evaluation of the truth. There was no appreciation of the fact that the Holy Spirit guided the Church in the interpretation and development of the truth as it is revealed in the Word of God. The checks and the road-signs of the past were not taken into consideration, and ancient heresies, long since condemned by the Church, are constantly repeated and represented as new discoveries.

The lessons of the past are greatly neglected, and many seem to feel that they should strike out entirely on their own, as if very little had been accomplished in the past. Surely, a theologian must take account of the present situation in the religious world, and ever study the truth anew, but he cannot neglect the lessons of the past with impunity. May this brief study of the history of doctrines serve to create a greater interest in such historical study, and lead to a better understanding of the truth.

A companion volume to the author’s Systematic Theology, also available from Banner of Truth.

 

Prolegomena

 

 

I:

THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA

 

 

1. The meaning of the word ‘dogma’

15

 

2. The origin and character of dogmas

16

II:

THE TASK OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA

 

 

1. Its presuppositions

20

 

2. Its subject-matter

23

III:

METHOD AND DIVISIONS OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA

 

 

1. Divisions of the history of dogma

25

 

2. Method of treatment

26

IV:

HISTORY OF THE HISTORY OF DOGMA

 

 

1. Factors that gave rise to the history of dogma as a separate discipline

29

 

2. Earlier works on the history of dogma

31

 

3. Later works on the history of dogma

32

 

Preparatory doctrinal development

 

I:

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS AND THEIR DOCTRINAL VIEWS

 

 

1. Their reputed writings

37

 

2. Formal characteristics of their teachings

38

 

3. Material contents of their teachings

40

II:

PERVERSIONS OF THE GOSPEL

 

 

1. Jewish perversions

44

 

2. Gentile perversions: Gnosticism

45

III:

REFORM MOVEMENTS IN THE CHURCH

 

 

1. Marcion and his movement of reform

52

 

2. The Montanist Reformation

54

IV:

THE APOLOGISTS AND THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CHURCH’S THEOLOGY

 

 

1. The task of the apologists

56

 

2. Their positive construction of the truth

57

 

3. Their significance for the history of dogma

59

V:

THE ANTI-GNOSTIC FATHERS

 

 

1. The anti-Gnostic Fathers; Biographical

62

 

2. Their doctrines of God, Man, and the history of redemption

63

 

3. Their doctrine of the Person and work of Christ

64

 

4. Their doctrines of Salvation, the Church, and the last things

67

VI:

THE ALEXANDRIAN FATHERS

 

 

1. The Alexandrian Fathers; Biographical

70

 

2. Their doctrines of God and Man

71

 

3. Their doctrine of the Person and work of Christ

73

 

4. Their doctrines of Salvation, the Church, and the last things

74

VII:

MONARCHIANISM

 

 

1. Dynamic Monarchianism

77

 

2. Modalistic Monarchianism

78

 

The doctrine of the Trinity

 

I:

THE TRINITARIAN CONTROVERSY

 

 

1. The background

83

 

2. The nature of the controversy

84

 

3. The Council of Nicaa

86

 

4. The aftermath:

 

 

[a] Unsatisfactory nature of the decision

87

 

[b] Temporary ascendancy of semi-Arianism in the Eastern Church

87

 

[c] The turning of the tide

89

 

[d] The dispute about the Holy Spirit

90

 

[e] Completion of the doctrine of the Trinity

91

II:

THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY IN LATER THEOLOGY

 

 

1. The doctrine of the Trinity in Latin theology

94

 

2. The doctrine of the Trinity in the period of the Reformation

95

 

3. The doctrine of the Trinity after the period of the Reformation

96

 

The doctrine of Christ

 

I:

THE CHRISTOLOGICAL CONTROVERSIES

 

 

1. The first stage of the controversy:

 

 

[a] The background

102

 

[b] The parties to the controversy

103

 

[c] The decision of the Council of Chalcedon

107

 

2. The second stage of the controversy:

 

 

[a] Confusion after the decision of the Council

108

 

[b] The Monothelitic Controversy

109

 

[c] The construction of the doctrine by John of Damascus

110

 

[d] The Christology of the Western Church

111

II:

LATER CHRISTOLOGICAl DISCUSSIONS

 

 

1. In the Middle Ages

114

 

2. During the Reformation

115

 

3. In the nineteenth century

117

 

[a] The view of Schleiermacher

118

 

[b] The conceptions of Kant and Hegel

119

 

[c] The Kenotic theories

120

 

[d] Dorner’s conception of the Incarnation

121

 

[e] Ritschl’s view of the Person of Christ

122

 

[f] Christ in modern theology

122

 

The doctrine of sin and grace and related doctrines

 

I:

THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE PATRISTIC PERIOD

 

 

1. The importance of anthropological problems

127

 

2. The anthropology of the Greek Fathers

127

 

3. The gradual emergence of another view in the West

129

II:

THE PELAGIAN AND AUGUSTINIAN DOCTRINES

 

OF SIN AND GRACE

 

 

1. Augustine and Pelagius

131

 

2. The Pelagian ___ of sin and grace

132

 

3. The Augustinian view of sin and grace

133

 

[a] Augustine’s view of sin

134

 

[b] His view of grace

135

 

4. Pelagian and Semi-Pelagian controversies

137

III:

THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE MIDDLE AGES

 

 

1. The views of Gregory the Great

140

 

2. The Gottschalkian controversy

141

 

3. The contribution of Anselm

 

 

[a] His doctrine of sin

142

 

[b] His doctrine of the freedom of the will

143

 

4. Peculiarities of Roman Catholic anthropology

144

IV:

THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE PERIOD OF THE

 

REFORMATION

 

 

1. The anthropology of the Reformers

147

 

2. The Socinian position

149

 

3. Arminian anthropology

150

 

4. The position of the Synod of Dort

151

 

5. The position of the School of Saumur

153

V:

ANTHROPOLOGICAL VIEWS OF POST-REFORMATION TIMES

 

 

1. Divergent views:

 

 

[a] A modification of the Arminian view in Wesleyan Arminianism

155

 

[b] A modification of the Reformed view in New England theology

156

 

2. Some modern theories of Sin:

 

 

[a] Philosophical

157

 

[b] Theological

158

 

The doctrine of the atonement or of the work of Christ

 

I:

THE DOCTRINE OF THE ATONEMENT BEFORE ANSELM

 

 

1. In Greek patristic theology

165

 

2. In Latin patristic theology

168

II:

THE DOCTRINE OF THE ATONEMENT FROM ANSELM TO THE REFORMATION

 

 

1. The doctrine of the atonement in Anselm

171

 

2. Abelard’s theory of the atonement

174

 

3. Reaction to Abelard in Bernard of Clairvaux

175

 

4. Syncretistic views of the atonement

 

 

[a] Peter the Lombard

176

 

[b] Bonaventura

176

 

[c] Thomas Aquinas

177

 

5. Duns Scotus on the atonement

179

III:

THE DOCTRINE OF THE ATONEMENT IN THE

 

PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION

 

 

1. The Reformers improve on the doctrine of Anselm

182

 

2. The Socinian conception of the atonement

182

 

3. The Grotian theory of the atonement

186

 

4. The Arminian view of the atonement

188

 

5. The compromise of the School of Saumur

190

IV:

THE DOCTRINE OF THE ATONEMENT AFTER THE

 

REFORMATION

 

 

1. The Marrow controversy in Scotland

192

 

2. Schleiermacher and Ritschl on the atonement

193

 

3. Some of the more recent theories on the atonement:

 

 

[a] The governmental theory in New England theology

195

 

[b] Different types of the moral influence theory

196

 

[c] The mystical theory of the atonement

198

 

The doctrine of the application and appropriation of Divine Grace

 

I:

THE SOTERIOLOGY OF THE PATRISTIC PERIOD

 

 

1. The soteriology of the first three centuries

203

 

2. The soteriology of the remaining centuries of the Patristic Period

205

II:

THE SOTERIOLOGY OF THE SCHOLASTIC PERIOD

 

 

1. The scholastic conception of grace

211

 

2. The scholastic conception of faith

212

 

3. The scholastic conception of justification and merit

213

III:

REFORMATION AND POST-REFORMATION

 

SOTERIOLOGY

 

 

1. The Lutheran order of salvation

217

 

2. The Reformed order of salvation

219

 

3. The Arminian order of salvation

221

 

4. Minor conceptions of the order of salvation

 

 

[a] Antinomian

222

 

[b] Mystical

223

 

The doctrine of the Church and the Sacraments

 

I:

THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH

 

 

1. In the Patristic Period

227

 

2. In the Middle Ages

232

 

3. During and after the Reformation

 

 

[a] The Lutheran view

236

 

[b] The Anabaptist view

237

 

[c] The Reformed view

237

 

[d] Divergent Post-Reformation views

238

II:

THE DOCTRINE OF THE SACRAMENTS

 

 

1. The sacraments in general:

 

 

[a] Development of the doctrine before the Reformation

242

 

[b] The doctrine of the Reformers and of later theology

245

 

2. Baptism:

 

 

[a] Development of the doctrine before the Reformation

247

 

[b] The doctrine of the Reformers and of later theology

249

 

3. The Lord’s Supper:

 

 

[a] Development of the doctrine before the Reformation

251

 

[b] The doctrine of the Reformers and of later theology

254

 

The doctrine of the last things

 

I:

THE INTERMEDIATE STATE

259

II:

THE SECOND ADVENT AND THE MILLENNIAL HOPE

262

III:

THE RESURRECTION

265

IV:

THE LAST JUDGMENT AND FINAL AWARDS

267

 

Literature

273

 

Index of names

277

 

Index of subjects

280


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